Low speed synchronous motor

Abstract

Claims

P 1961 D. E. WILCOX ET AL 3,001,093 LOW SPEED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 30, 1956 a m n .3 V INVENTORS LE E. WILOOX EPH A. MEHM DOY JOS ATTORNEY p 1961 D. E. WILCOX ETAL 3,001,093 LOW SPEED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Aug. 30. 1956 INVENTORS- DOYLE E. WILCOX BY JOSEPH A.MEHM AT TORNEY Sept. 19, 1961 D. E. WILCOX ETAL 3,001,093 LOW SPEED SYNCHRQNOUS MOTOR Filed Aug. 50, 1956 '5 Sheets-Sheet 3 (D m 1:! m I IQ e- 0 E N g m d {if D INVENTORS. 6 DOYLE E. WILGOX JOSEPH A. MEHM BY 6 f fl Mo ATTORNEY United States, Patent 3,001,093 LOW SPEED SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR Doyle E. Wilcox, Pnente, and Joseph A. Mehm, Huntington Park, Califl, assignors to North American Aviation, Inc. Filed Aug. 30, 1956, Ser. No. 607,221 Claims. (Cl. 310-158) This invention relates to dynamoelectric apparatus and concerns particularly apparatus of the inductor type. Efforts to obtain lower speeds of output shafts driven by; synchronous alternating current motors have encountered difficulties, such as greatly increased weight and cost per horsepower whether speed reduction is accomplishedby; interposing reduction gearing or designing motors with greater numbers of poles. v Frequency changers to provide special lower frequency circuits also introduce higher cost and weight. Doubling the number or poles, for example, 'to make the synchronous speed half as great without loss of horsepower requires making the diameter about twice as great and weight and cost about four times as great. The. weight problem alone is of great. consideration on aircraft where the weight of motor driven auxiliaries must be maintained at a practical minimum, FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the motor of FIG. 1; 'FIG. 3 is a circuit diagram of the field windings of the motor illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2; FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional View of another embodiment of the invention illustrating a different type of rotor mounting; and FIG. 5 is a schematic circuit diagram for a three-phase embodiment. I Like reference characters are utilized throughout the drawing to designate like parts. 7 Referring now to FIGS. 1 and '2. of the drawing, a motor housing 11 is provided in which is secured a field structure 12 preferably composed of punched laminations formed with salient poles indicated generally as 13. There is a rotor 14 comprising a shell 15 composed of magnetizable material, such as soft iron, mounted upon a shaft 16. For enabling the rotor shell 15 to be con- It is accordingly an object of the inventionto provide synchronous rotating machinery of lower speed without significant increase in cost or number of: parts. A specific object of the invention is to provide improved, compact, rugged, reliable alternating-current rotating apparatus: for operation at low speedsin relation to frequency. k A further object of the invention is to provide apparatus capable of operation at low speeds on 400-cycle cir cuits and suitable for use on aircraft. Another object of the invention is to provide a low speed, high torque, high efliciency synchronous motor. Another object of the invention is toprovide a synchronous. motor which is self-starting on high-frequency circuits as well as low-frequency circuits. Still another object of the invention is to provide a slow speed motor with a minimum of external control or equipment. w Other and further objects, features and advantages of the invention will become apparent at the description proceedsa In carrying out the invention in accordance with a; preferred form thereof, a salient pole field structure is ,utilized with eight poles or a multiple thereof and a field coil on each pole. Two-phase excitation is employed with alternate coils connected to the same phase and rectifiers connected to the field coils in such a manner that half the coils in each phase are connected with one polarity and the other half with the opposite polarity. A slotted rotor is provided and the pole faces are slotted with the same slot pitch as the rotor.. The pole face slots of each pole are displaced from those in the next pole face so that when the rotor slots are in alignment with those of one pole face, they are out of alignment by a quarter slot pitch under the next pole; face. Preferably, the rotor :is mounted on a shaft with some freedom of relative angular motion thereto for facilitating self-starting at high excitation frequencies For excitation by .three or more phases the slot displacement is modified accordingly. i z,v I A better understanding of the invention will be afforded by the following detailed description considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in . which FIG. 1 is a longitudinal sectional View of a motor (constituting .an embodiment of the invention; nected tofthe shaft 16 side plates 17 are provided which are rotatably mounted upon the shaft 16 by auxiliary bearings 18. For reducing the reluctance of the magnetic path across the diameters between the poles 13 a cylindrical member or rotor core 19 composed of soft iron or other magnetizable material is loosely mounted upon the shaft 16. A spring member 21 composed of spring-steel, or the'like, is secured in a transverse opening 22'of the shaft 16 and welded or otherwise secured at the ends 23 to the inner surface of the rotor shell 15. The motor housing 11 is provided with end bells 25 carrying the main bearings 26 supporting the shaft 16 of the rotor 14. i As shown in FIG. 2, the poles 13*areprovided with pole faces 27 of increased angular width about the axis of revolution of the rotor. Both the rotor shell 15 and thepole faces 27 are axially slotted so as to' provide rotor slots 28 and pole face slots 2?. The slot pitch or spacing'from oneslot to the next is made a fraction of the pole pitch so that there may be a plurality of slots in each' pole face. Moreover, the spacing or separation between adjacent po-le faces is made of the same order of magnitude as the slot pitch. In the particular arrangement illustrated with eight salient poles, the spacing between pole faces is three-fourth slot pitch so that each pole is displaced a fourth slot pitch with respect to the adjacent pole. Although the slot pitch of the rotor shell 15 is made uniform around the periphery thereof, the slotsin the pole faces are thus displaced from each other in successive pole faces. In the case of an eight pole machine for two-phase excitation, as illustrated, going'from one pole face to the next around the periphery of the machine the pole face slots are displaced one-fourth slot pitch. For example, in the case of the pole 31 for a given position' of the rotor the slots are in alignment but the rotor: and the pole face slots are partially displaced in position at pole 32. At the pole 33 the slots are displaced further again so that the slots of the pole face are in alignment with the teeth of the rotor. However, in the pole 34, which is four poles away from the pole 31 and of opposite polarity, the slots in the pole face and in the rotor are again in alignment. In the eight pole two-phase machine the angular phase relationship between slots in successive poles is (electrical) so that for every four poles the same angular relationship isrepeated. On the other hand, in the case of a three-phase twelve-pole machine there would be a 60 displacement of slots from pole face to pole face and every sixth pole would have the angular relationship repeated. Thus, the fraction of the slot pitch representing the displacement in slots from one pole face to the next is the reciprocal of twice the number of .phases and the number of salient poles is four itmes the number of phases. y l . those connected to the other phase. In the case of an eight-pole machine there are eight coils -158, inclusive. l ple, .as illustrated, in FIG. 4 there is a shaft 71 carrying a p V Coils 51, 53,55 and 57 are connected to terminals 43 Y and 44 of phase 2 and coils 52, 54, 56 and 58 are con-' necter to terminals 41 and 42 of phase-1. The coils connected to each phase are in turn divided into two groups, each with a rectifier interposed in connections to the phase terminals, the rectifier polaritiesbeing opposite in the two groups. Thus, for a two-phase, eight-coil machine four rectifiers are employed and for a threephase, twelve-coil machine six rectifiers would be employed. In the first phase field coils 58 and 54 areconnected in series through a rectifier 61. Coils 52 and 56 are' connected in'series through a rectifier 62-of opposite polarity from the rectifier'6l in such a manner that the magnetic polarity of every second field coil in each phase is reversed; opposite field coils also have opposite magnetic polarity. Likewise, field coils 51 and 55 are connected through rectifier 63' in-series to the phase terminals 43 and 44 of the second phase and field coils 53 and 57 are connected in. series through rectifier 64 to phase terminals 43 and 44 of the second phase, which is in quadrature with .the first phase. There is a transverse opening 65 in the soft-iron rotor V 19 of sufiicientsize to permit the spring rod 21 to flex slightly when torque is applied to the rotor shell 15. Consequently, even with high frequency excitation there is sufficient relative motion between the rotor shell cross rod 72 secured'in a transverse opening 73 therein and spaced lugs 74 are provided on the rotor'75 which I strike the cross rods 72 when the rotor has rotated through a small angle. In the arrangement of FIG. 4 there is a rotor shell 15' slotted the same manner as illustrated in connection with FIGS. 1 and 2. In this case, however, the rotor shell 15 iscarried upon a rotor core 76 which in turn is mounted upon auxiliary bearings 77 carried by the shaft 71. The shaft is supported by main bearings 26 as in the arrangement of FIGS.'1 and 2. For some types of excitation or control it is desirable to keep the two phases of a two-phase machine isolated for connection to two isolated phases of a supply circuit. As illustrated in FIG. 3, one such phase of the "supply'circuit is connected to the terminals 41 and 42 and the other of such phases of the supply circuit is connected to terminals 43 and 44. However, where the motor is to be energized by a conventional three-.terminial threephase line, the terminals 41 and 43, shown in 'FIG. 3, may be connected together to theneutralor common" phase terminal of the two-phase supply line. I , Illustrative connections: for a three-phase machine are shown in FIG. 5, where terminals 81, 82-and 83 are provided for connection to a three-phase supply line, and field coils 84, 85, 86,87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 9 4 and 95 are provided. As in the arrangement-of FIG. 3, the field windings are divided into groups connected to thefseveral and the winding 86 is connected to terminal 83 through and the shaft 16 to permit the torque to build up and a electrical cycle.- With-34 slots and eight poles the ad- V vance is 1058 degrees (360/ 34) per cyclea speed'of i 707 r.p.m. at 400 cycles per second. The use of, rectifiers in series with the excitation windings of the synchronous inductor type motor has significant valuable advantages. Owing to the fact that the rectifiers block out flux in any pole during the half cycle that a retarding flux would be produced, the machine operates with greater efiiciency and with greater mechanical power output for a given frame size and coil size than inductor machines withoutrrectifiers. Moreover, for the rotor teeth torfollow the flux variations synchronously when the full current is rectified the rotor must run half as fast during a rectifier half cycle of the flux wave as in the case of a full-wave flux wave and, therefore, the rotor runs half as fast as without the rectifier. The rectifiers thus cause the synchronous speed to be one-half and the torque per watt to be 170% of torque which would be obtained .with simple alternatingcurrent excitation of slotted rotor and polerface type of inductor machinery. I Y Although resilient mounting of the rotor shell 15- upon the shaft 16 is shown in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited thereto and does not exclude the utilization of any suitable mounting construction providing relative motion through a small angle between the rotor and the shaft. For examphases of the supply circuit. Adjacent windings are connected to successive phases. Winding 8*4is connected to phase terminal 81 through a rectifier 96; winding is connected to the phase terminal 82 through rectifier -97 rectifier 98. In the construction illustrated, theopposite ly poled windings are 180 physical'degrees apart. Opposite windings 84 and 90 are connected in series. Opposite Windings 85 and 91 are connected in series and opposite windings 86 and92 are connected in series, all with a common internal neutral connection 99, which may be brought out if desired. V As a counter part for the windings 84, 85, 86, 90, 91 and '92, the remaining windings have rectifiers connected with opposite polarity. Windings 87 and 93 are connected in series between the phase terminal 81 and the internal neutral line 99 in series with a rectifier 101 poled oppositely to rectifier 96. Likewise, windings 88 and 94 are connected in series between the phase terminal 82 and the common neutral 99 in series with rectifier 102 connected oppositely to the rectifier '97 and windings 89 and are connected in series between phase terminal 83' and the common neutral 99 in series With rectifier 103 poled oppositely to rectifier 98. Thus, the coils 90 physidegrees apart. For example, windings 84 and 87, which are connected to the phase terminal 81, are 90 physical degrees apart and are connected in series with rectifiers 96 and 101, respectively, which are oppositely poled. Coils 84 and 90, which are physical'degrees apart, are so wound as to be of opposite polarity, that is to produce a North pole onone side of the armature and a South pole on the other side of the armature, at any given instant, which is another way of saying that coils 84 and 90 are 180 electrical degrees apart. It is to be understood that with; twice the number of coils, coils such as coils 84 and 90 would be 180 electrical degrees apart but :only 90 physical degrees apart. The coils 84 and 87 would be only 22 /2 physical degrees apart and by analogy coils 84 and 87 might bethought of as being 90 electrical degrees apart since in certain respects there is an analogy to windings of conventional machines spaced 9O electrical degrees. 1 s J A significance of the use of half-wave rectifiers in effect to cause certain characteristics of a difierence of 90 electrical degrees between windings connected to the same phase, instead of 180 electrical degrees. When the winding 53, of FIG. 3, for example, causes maximum North polarity winding 55 connected to the same phase as winding 53 through an oppositely poled half-wave rectifier does not cause maximum South polarity but substantially no magnetization at all. This is owing to the fact when the polarity of the alternating-current Wave is such as to cause current flowing to the winding 53 and rectifier 64, no current flows through the winding 55 and rectifier 63. Ninety degrees later in the alternating-current wave current flows in neither winding but 180 degrees later in the alternating-current wave the winding 53-causes substantially no magnetization whereas the winding 55 causes maximum South polarity. I Although the invention has been described and illustrated in detail, it is to be clearly understood that the same is by way of illustration and example only and is not to be taken by way of limitation, the spirit and scope of this invention being limited only by the terms of the appended claims. We claim: I 1. A low speed synchronous motor comprising in combination a stator having a plurality of salient poles equalling in number at least four times the number of phases of the system; windings on said poles; polyphase terminals, connections from adjacent windings to successive phase terminals, oppositely poled rectifiers being included in the connections to alternate windings; a rotor having slots with a pitch small in relation to the pole pitch of the salient poles, the salient poles haying pole faces with slots of the same pitch as the rotor slots, the spacing between the adjacent pole tipsbeing oat the same order of magnitude as the slot pitch, and the pole slots being ad vanced in the direction of rotation in angular pitch from one pole to the next by a fraction equalling one divided by twice the number of phases. 2. A low speed synchronous motor for a two-phase line comprising in combination two-phase terminals, a stator having a number of salient poles, which number includes eight and multiples of eight, windings on each of said poles, alternate windings being connected to one phase and the remaining windings being connected to the other phase, rectifiers being interposed in thephasefiOnne t' with-each'fihase liavin'gfalternate windings therein connected to rectifiers of opposite polarity, a rotor having slots with a pitch small in relation to the pole pitch of the salient poles, the salient poles having pole faces with slots of the substantially same pitch as the rotor slots, the spacing between the adjacent pole tips being of the same order of magnitude as the slot pitch, and the pole slots being'advanced one-fourth pitch from one pole to the next. v 3. An inductor motor comprising in combination a field structure having a plurality of salient poles, windings thereon, polyphase terminals, connections from adjacent windings to successive phase terminals, whereby the windings are divided into as many groups as phases of the polyphase terminals, oppositely poled rectifiers being included in connections to alternate windings of each phase group, an armature having slots small in relation to the pole pitch of the salient poles, the salient poles having pole faces with slots of substantially the same pitch as the armature slots, and the pole-face slots being advanced in angular position from one pole to the next by a fraction equalling one divided by twice the number of phases. 4. An inductor motor designed for low speed synchronous operation comprising in combination with a plurality of polyphase terminals, a field structure having a number of poles including four times the number of phases and multiples thereof, windings for each of said poles, connections from adjacent windings to successive phase terminals, the windings 180 electrical degrees apart being connected with opposite polarity, rectifiers interposed in the connections between the phase terminals and the windings, the windings electrical degrees apart having the rectifiers to which they are connected oppositely poled, an armature having slots with a pitch small in relation to the pole pitch, the field structure having pole faces with slots of substantially the same pitch as the armature slots, and the pole slots being advanced in angular phase from one pole to the next by a friction equalling one divided by twice the number of phases. 5. An inductor motor for low speed synchronous operation from a polyphase source of excitation comprising in combination relatively movable magnetizable members each having slots thereon of substantially the same pitch, windings on one of said magnetizable structures so spaced as to form magnetic poles, the windings electrical degrees apart being connected with opposite polarity, half-wave rectifiers interposed in the winding connections with windings 90 electrical degrees apart being connected through oppositely poled rectifiers, the slots in the magnetized field structure being advanced in angular position from one pole to the next by a fraction equalling one divided by twice the number of phases of the source of excitation. ' References Gitedin the file ofthis patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,794,618 Howe Mar. 3, 1931 1,959,449 Stoller May 22, 1934 2,103,356 Fisher Dec. 28, 1937 2,105,513 Welch Jan. 18, 1938 2,295,286 Michelsen Sept. 8, 1942 2,497,141 Schultz Feb. 14, 1950 2,703,370 Steensen Mar. 1, 1955

Description

Topics

Download Full PDF Version (Non-Commercial Use)

Patent Citations (7)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    US-1794618-AMarch 03, 1931Gen Railway Signal CoAlternating-current-relay motor
    US-1959449-AMay 22, 1934Bell Telephone Labor IncSynchronous motor
    US-2103356-ADecember 28, 1937Whiting Holding CompanyElectric motor
    US-2105513-AJanuary 18, 1938Gen ElectricDirectional self-starting inductor motor
    US-2295286-ASeptember 08, 1942Westinghouse Electric & Mfg CoMultipole synchronous motor
    US-2497141-AFebruary 14, 1950Frederic W SchultzSynchronous motor
    US-2703370-AMarch 01, 1955Steensen Sverre JohanElectric compressor or pump motor with rolling rotor

NO-Patent Citations (0)

    Title

Cited By (23)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    JP-S508412-UJanuary 28, 1975
    US-2007177999-A1August 02, 2007Toshiro Fujii, Fumihiro Suzuki, Yoshiyuki Nakane, Masanao Kagami, Katsutoshi Shiromaru, Hiroaki KatoElectric pump for hydrogen circulation
    US-2009127963-A1May 21, 2009The Timken CompanyElectric motor with field weakening
    US-3148319-ASeptember 08, 1964Superior Electric CoElectric motor
    US-3335309-AAugust 08, 1967Imp Electric CompanyDirect current motor
    US-3770999-ANovember 06, 1973N Gorkogo, G Kovalkov, O VeselovaApparatus for control of the rotary rectifier of a synchronous machine
    US-3845338-AOctober 29, 1974Transicoil IncDirect current shell armature motor
    US-4045696-AAugust 30, 1977International Business Machines CorporationRotor stator assembly for a low inertia stepping motor
    US-4757220-AJuly 12, 1988AlsthomElectrodynamic vernier machine
    US-7061152-B2June 13, 2006Novatorque, Inc.Rotor-stator structure for electrodynamic machines
    US-7205693-B2April 17, 2007Novatorque, Inc.Rotor-stator structure for electrodynamic machines
    US-7239058-B2July 03, 2007Novatorque, Inc.Rotor-stator structure for electrodynamic machines
    US-7294948-B2November 13, 2007Novatorque, Inc.Rotor-stator structure for electrodynamic machines
    US-7884522-B1February 08, 2011Novatorque, Inc.Stator and rotor-stator structures for electrodynamic machines
    US-7960888-B2June 14, 2011The Timken CompanyElectric motor with field weakening
    US-7982350-B2July 19, 2011Novatorque, Inc.Conical magnets and rotor-stator structures for electrodynamic machines
    US-8283832-B2October 09, 2012Novatorque, Inc.Sculpted field pole members and methods of forming the same for electrodynamic machines
    US-8330316-B2December 11, 2012Novatorque, Inc.Rotor-stator structures including boost magnet structures for magnetic regions in rotor assemblies disposed external to boundaries of conically-shaped spaces
    US-8330317-B2December 11, 2012Novatorque, Inc.Conical magnets and rotor-stator structures for electrodynamic machines
    US-8471425-B2June 25, 2013Novatorque, Inc.Rotor-stator structures including boost magnet structures for magnetic regions having angled confronting surfaces in rotor assemblies
    US-8491279-B2July 23, 2013Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota JidoshokkiElectric pump for hydrogen circulation
    US-8543365-B1September 24, 2013Novatorque, Inc.Computer-readable medium, a method and an apparatus for designing and simulating electrodynamic machines implementing conical and cylindrical magnets
    US-9093874-B2July 28, 2015Novatorque, Inc.Sculpted field pole members and methods of forming the same for electrodynamic machines